Physical and Digital Infrastructure for Connected and Automated Vehicles (CAV)
- Kimmel, S., Duran, A., Robertson, J., Vanderveen, M., Wendling, B. (2021). Physical and Digital Infrastructure for Connected and Automated Vehicles (CAV). Code Framework. Canadian Standards Association, Toronto, ON.
The CSA Group report titled “Connected and Automated Vehicle Technologies – Insights for Codes and Standards in Canada” provided recommendations and highlighted the need for a code that provides requirements and specifications for digital and physical infrastructure to be safely installed and securely operated in supporting connected and automated vehicle (CAV) technology deployment. To help meet that need, this report provides a framework for developing a code relevant for CAV implementation within North America as it relates to three topic areas: 1) physical infrastructure, 2) digital infrastructure, and 3) cybersecurity and data security/privacy. The development of the framework was informed by an investigation into relevant standards, technical research, and other existing literature sources. In addition, the findings in this report are also informed based on interviews with several experts within the physical and digital infrastructure fields that provided input on emerging standards and validated findings from the literature review. Categories for CAV requirements and specifications, as well as many relevant standards within these categories, are identified providing a framework that serves as a tractable starting point for a CAV code.
Results from the literature review and interviews identified several key findings for a North American framework for digital and physical infrastructure:
- Physical Infrastructure
- Consistent and well-maintained physical infrastructure can improve reliability of CAVs, especially by improving performance of onboard sensors.
- Design standards may facilitate CAV deployments, especially for markings, signage, and signals.
- Design standards run the risk of being so tailored to specific vehicle sensor technologies that they may become obsolete due to rapidly advancing technology.
- Digital Infrastructure
- Interoperability of instrumented infrastructure and vehicles is critical to capturing benefits, which motivates the need for standardized protocols, message sets, and dialogues.
- Cooperative driving automation features are enabled by standardized use case definitions and performance requirements that are agnostic of communications technology.
- High-definition maps are enabled by timely and accurate data about changes to road infrastructure (e.g., work zones and utility work).
- Cybersecurity and Data/Security Privacy
- There are numerous communications pathways (e.g., 4G/5G, DSRC/C-V2X, NFC, Satellite, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth) by which CAVs exchange data with infrastructure, and each comes with privacy and security challenges.
- While cybersecurity can look different for each organization, there are well-established security frameworks and engineering practices that can improve a system-wide security posture. In particular, there is a need for guidance tailored to help public sector agencies assess and mitigate cybersecurity risks with limited resources.
- Privacy is governed by legal and regulatory frameworks at international, national, and local levels.
- Shawn Kimmel, Ph.D., QS-2 Director of Engineering
- Adam Duran, QS-2 Senior Engineer
- Jeremiah Robertson, QS-2 Senior Engineer
- Michaela Vanderveen, Ph.D., QS-2 Lead Engineer
- Barbara Wendling, QS-2 Senior Engineer
Project Advisory Panel
- Jonathan Parent, Transport Canada
- Edward Straub, SAE International
- Paul Carlson, Road Infrastructure Inc.
- Brent Harman, CSA Group
- Mahmood Nesheli, CSA Group (Project Manager)
- Nikki Kidd, CSA Group
The authors would like to acknowledge the participation of our industry stakeholders who volunteered their time to share their expertise and insights on the current state of connected and automated vehicle (CAV) technology standards.
This report is supported by Canadian Standards Association (operating as CSA Group) and is complementary to other initiatives undertaken by Canadian Standards Association with funding received from Transport Canada’s Program to Advance Connectivity and Automation in the Transportation System (ACATS).
This work has been produced by QS-2 and is owned by Canadian Standards Association. It is designed to provide general information in regards to the subject matter covered. The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors. QS-2 and Canadian Standards Association are not responsible for any loss or damage which might occur as a result of your reliance or use of the content in this publication.
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