• Kauling, D., Sage, G., Pinatton, M., Jeremic Nikolic, D. (2023). Hydrogen Storage and Transport Beyond Pipelines: Regulations and Standardization. Canadian Standards Association, Toronto, ON.

Executive Summary

In Canada, there is growing interest in the use of hydrogen as a sustainable, green fuel. The research conducted for this report reviewed regulations, standards, and best practices for the transport and storage of hydrogen that could facilitate its swift and safe adoption. The research also included consultations with experts and interviews with key industry representatives. The literature review included current regulations and existing codes and standards pertaining to the transport of hydrogen by maritime vessels, rail, and road vehicles, and those pertaining to the storage of hydrogen above and below ground, with the goals of identifying potential gaps and providing recommendations for standardization.

Safe handling, transportation, and storage of hazardous materials, which include hydrogen, are regulated by both Canadian and US federal regulations, and additional requirements are outlined in provincial, territorial, state, and other regional regulations. There are also standards specific to hydrogen quality, hydrogen handling, gas and liquid hydrogen installations, and hydrogen transport by pipelines, as well as standards for testing the materials for containers and pipelines carrying hydrogen. Many of the standards applicable to hydrogen transport by various modes of transportation are currently being revised to provide specific requirements for hydrogen.

This report provides recommendations for revisions of standards to accommodate scaled-up means of hydrogen transportation and storage, as new solutions are emerging in this area. In particular, bulk liquid hydrogen transportation by waterways needs to be addressed. For hydrogen transport by rail, it is recommended that standards account for the design of hydrogen tender cars, transport by ISO containers, and applicability of existing liquefied natural gas rail cars design requirements for hydrogen transport.

Furthermore, this report also recommends that discussions, forums, and platforms should be an ongoing effort across sectors, industries, authorities having jurisdiction, and borders to share experiences and define specific needs within certain codes and standards to advance the use of hydrogen technology.