This International Standard provides a specification language, UPDM, that is readily understandable not only by the community of architects of information technology systems but also by a wide range of end users including executives and enterprise management that sponsor such systems, program managers that oversee their development, developers of supporting hardware and software (design, implementation, and testing), subject matter experts, and end users. UPDM bridges the gap from setting of requirements to high level system design and to visualization for practitioners. While designed in the context of military organizations and their procurement processes, UPDM can also be applied in entirely civilian industrial and service organization contexts. UPDM 2.1.1 supports the capability to: ? model architectures for a broad range of complex systems, which may include hardware, software, data, personnel, and facility elements; ? model consistent architectures for system-of-systems down to lower levels of design and implementation; ? model service oriented architectures; ? support the analysis, specification, design, and verification of complex systems; and ? improve the ability to exchange architecture information among related tools that are UML based and tools that are based on other standards. The profile provides the modeling of operational capabilities, services, system activities, nodes, system functions, ports, protocols, interfaces, performance, and physical properties and units of measure. In addition, the profile enables the modeling of related architecture concepts such as DoD's doctrine, organization, training material, leadership & education, personnel, and facilities (DOTMLPF) and the equivalent UK Ministry of Defence Lines of Development (DLOD) elements. UPDM 2.1.1, as illustrated in Figure 1.1, addresses DoDAF and MODAF Viewpoints as well as enabling extensions to new architecture perspectives (e.g., Services views, Custom views, Logistics views cost views, etc.). MODAF terminology has been used for simplicity.