This document specifies a reference method using transmission electron microscopy for the determination of airborne asbestos fibres and structures in in a wide range of ambient air situations, including the interior atmospheres of buildings, and for a detailed evaluation for asbestos structures in any atmosphere. The specimen preparation procedure incorporates ashing and dispersion of the collected particulate, so that all asbestos is measured, including the asbestos originally incorporated in particle aggregates or particles of composite materials. The lengths, widths and aspect ratios of the asbestos fibres and bundles are measured, and these, together with the density of the type of asbestos, also allow the total mass concentration of airborne asbestos to be calculated. The method allows determination of the type(s) of asbestos fibres present. The method cannot discriminate between individual fibres of the asbestos and elongate fragments (cleavage fragments and acicular particles) from non-asbestos analogues of the same amphibole mineral.