This document aims at providing general utilization requirements and recommendations and calculation methods adequate to guarantee the effectiveness and ultimate load strength of tie-down/lashing arrangements performed to restrain cargo on board civil transport aircraft during flight:
a) cargo loaded and tied down onto airworthiness approved air cargo pallets, themselves restrained into aircraft lower deck or main deck or upper deck cargo systems meeting the restraint requirements of air cargo pallets approved in accordance with ISO 8097 (NAS3610) or ISO 21100, or
b) additional tie-down on aircraft structure when necessitated by pallet maximum gross mass or centre of gravity limits, or
c) non-unitized individual pieces of cargo, or pieces of cargo placed onto an unrestrained (floating) pallet into either lower deck, main deck or upper deck containerized cargo compartments of an aircraft, or
d) individual pieces of load loaded in non-containerized (bulk loaded) baggage or cargo compartments.
This document applies to cargo tie-down/lashing arrangements using exclusively air cargo restraint straps conforming to ISO 16049-1. Its general recommendations may also be used for tie-down arrangements using other means (e.g. steel cables, rope, other types of straps), but under the user's responsibility as to their adequacy and the strength calculations required.
NOTE 1 Where tie-down is performed onto aircraft structure as per b) or c) above, additional restrictions can be stated in the aircraft's Authority approved Weight and Balance Manual.
NOTE 2 The use of chains, rods, or other rigid devices for tie-down onto civil transport aircraft floor tracks, which can generate excessive stress in the aircraft structure, is not part of the scope of this document. .
This document aims at providing industry recognized means of complying with Airworthiness Authorities general requirements applicable to load securing on board civil transport aircraft (see CCAR-25, JAS Part 3, 14 CFR Part 25 and EASA CS-25), and aircraft manufacturers Authority approved Weight and Balance Manuals for each aircraft type as specified therein. It is not the intent of this document to specify when restraint straps should be used, but how they should be used.
Meeting the methods requirements of this document is not alone sufficient to ensure flight safety: this document is based on the assumption that cargo tie-down will be designed, performed, and checked prior to aircraft departure in accordance with appropriate operating instructions conforming to the Weight and Balance Manual of the aircraft concerned, by competent, suitably trained, personnel as defined for example in ISO 9001:2015, 6.2.2 (see Clause 8).