The directions and limitations given in ISO 281 apply to ISO/TS 16281:2008. The calculation methods pertain to the fatigue life of the bearings. Other mechanisms of failure, like wear or microspalling (gray staining), lie outside the scope of ISO/TS 16281:2008.
ISO/TS 16281:2008 applies to tilted single-row radial ball bearings, subjected to radial and axial load, and with radial clearance and tilt taken into account. It also applies to tilted single-row roller bearings, subjected to pure radial load and with radial clearance, edge stress and tilt taken into account. References to methods for the analysis of the internal load distribution under general load are given.
The analysis of internal load distribution and modified reference rating life for multi-row bearings or bearings of a more complex geometry can be derived from the equations given in ISO/TS 16281:2008. For these bearings, the load distribution for each individual row has to be considered.
ISO/TS 16281:2008 is primarily intended to be used for computer programs and together with ISO 281 covers the information needed for life calculations. For accurate life calculations under the operating conditions specified above, it is recommended that either ISO/TS 16281:2008 or advanced computer calculations provided by bearing manufacturers, for determining the dynamic equivalent reference load under different loading conditions, be used.