Commentary on CSA Standard Z662-03, Oil and Gas Pipeline Systems
The scope statement indicates which aspects and parts of pipeline systems and which service fluids are covered by the Standard. Carbon dioxide was added as a new service fluid in 1996. The definition of gas was changed in 1983 to accommodate the coverage of gaseous service fluids other than fuel gas and sour gas; however, until 1996, none had been added.
The carbon dioxide pipelines that are covered are those onshore pipelines that are for use in enhanced oil recovery operations, involving the transportation of high-purity carbon dioxide from a suitable source to the injection site at an oil well. These pipelines were added to the Standard because it was considered that there had been sufficient experience with such an application to warrant their inclusion. Pure carbon dioxide is non-toxic and non-flammable; however, it has some specific characteristics that necessitated the addition of requirements specific to carbon dioxide pipeline systems.
It should be noted that the definition of a carbon dioxide pipeline permits the service fluid in such a pipeline to be other than pure carbon dioxide, so additional special requirements may be appropriate. . It should be noted that carbon dioxide might additionally be present in conventional pipelines as a component of a multi-phase fluid or as a component of a fluid in a gas gathering system.
For such fluids, the conventional requirements previously in place continue to be appropriate.
The parts of pipeline systems that are included in the scope are listed here, and the pictorial representations in Figures 1.1, 1.2, 11.1 to 11.5, and 12.1 are intended to augment the information stated in Clauses 1.2 and 1.3. The figures are schematic and are intended to convey broad functions rather than specific details