This is the second edition of CSA N288.1, Guidelines for calculating derived release limits for radioactive material in airborne and liquid effluents for normal operation of nuclear facilities. It supersedes the first edition, published in 1987.
The previous edition of CSA N288.1 and the CDG were intended to apply primarily to CANDU nuclear power stations in Canada; this remains the focus of this Guideline. However, the radionuclides and environmental pathways addressed make this Guideline applicable to releases from many other nuclear facilities, including research reactors, radioisotope processing facilities, waste processing facilities such as incinerators, and power reactors other than those of CANDU design. Application to other types of facilities such as fuel fabrication plants and refineries is limited by the radionuclides considered here (see Clause 4.3). However, neither the radionuclides nor the models included in this Guideline are complete enough to cover releases from sources such as uranium mine tailings, permanent geologic disposal facilities, and other facilities where extensive modelling of groundwater pathways is required. This Guideline may be adapted to cover part of the needs of such facilities, but additional models or methodologies might be necessary for other parts.
1.2 Release paths
This Guideline covers releases to the atmosphere and to surface water (both fresh and marine). It does not address releases to groundwater, although transfers from other media to groundwater wells and ponds are considered. Direct gamma irradiation from radioactivity inside the facility is not modelled because it does not involve a release.
1.3 Release duration
The methods specified in this Guideline are designed for routine, continuous, low-level emissions. They also apply to periodic, short-term releases (see Clause 8.2), provided that
(a) the releases are controlled and associated with normal operations;
(b) the release rate is roughly the same from event to event;
(c) for atmospheric releases, the total release duration exceeds approximately 400 hours in the year; for aquatic releases, at least one or two releases occur in each month of the year; and
(d) the releases occur randomly over time.
Where the requirement of Item (d) is not met but the releases are known to occur at a particular time of day or year, this Guideline applies only if the air (water) concentrations are calculated using the meteorological (hydrological) data in effect for that time.
(1) Where non-random releases are calculated using time-appropriate data, it might be possible to relax the conditions on the release frequencies.
(2) Releases that do not meet these conditions can use another model, such as that specified in CAN/CSA-N288.2 for atmospheric releases.
(3) This Clause applies to facilities that produce intermittent releases only. For some facilities, intermittent releases occur predictably as spikes on a continuous base release. Such releases can be considered part of routine emissions and included in the DRL without special treatment if the total activity released in intermittent form is less than approximately 30% of the total release from the facility. The 30% cut-off is considered a small fraction of the overall uncertainty of the DRL estimates.
This Guideline applies to the radiation effects of radionuclides. It does not apply to chemicals or to the chemical toxicity of radionuclides.
DRLs are derived for a representative person having the average characteristics of a group of individuals who, by reason of their location and habits, are likely to receive the highest exposures to a given radionuclide released from a particular source (see Clause 4.2). By maintaining release rates well below the DRL, the annual dose to these individuals (and therefore to all members of the public) will be below regulatory limits. This Guideline does not apply to nuclear energy workers (NEWs), or to non-NEWs working at a nuclear facility, who are assumed to be covered by on-site radiation protection programs. The DRLs calculated using the models specified in this Guideline apply to human end-points only; non-human biota are not covered.
1.6 Downwind distance of validity
This Guideline is not applicable to receptors located close to a source affected by building-induced turbulence, because the atmospheric dispersion model does not simulate the cavity that forms in the lee of the building. Because the cavity extends approximately three building heights downwind, this Guideline applies only beyond this distance. Moreover, the dispersion model should be used with caution beyond an approximate distance of 20 km from the facility, because the assumption of steady-state meteorological conditions implicit in the model becomes less valid at greater distances. This is not an issue in practice because the representative person is usually found closer to the facility than 20 km.
1.7 Site specificity
Local parameter values should be used wherever possible in calculating DRLs for a specific site. Where local values are not available, the default values given in this Guideline for the region closest to the site of interest may be used. These regional values represent conditions at the main nuclear sites in Canada (i.e., Pickering/Darlington, Bruce, CRL, G-2, and Point Lepreau) but may be interpreted as default values for the regional areas of southern Ontario, western Ontario, eastern Ontario, Québec, and the Maritimes, respectively.
1.8 Level of complexity
1.8.1 Simpler approaches
The models specified in this Guideline are comprehensive and in some cases include considerable detail. This level of complexity might not be warranted for all assessments. Less complex approaches, involving fewer pathways and/or less detail, might be appropriate under some circumstances. Any pathway that can be shown to not contribute significantly to the total dose may be neglected. In these cases, simpler models such as those described by the IAEA Safety Report Series No. 19 may be used, provided that justification for using a simpler approach is provided.
For example, the following need not be considered:
(a) radionuclides that are not released from the site of interest; and
(b) pathways related to wells that are not used as a source of water by members of the public near the site.
1.8.2 Default transfer parameters
A simplified approach is available for application of this Guideline without implementation of the models. Annex A lists default transfer parameters for each radionuclide for each pathway in the model, together with the assumptions made in calculating the values. If the assumptions hold for the application in question, these default values may be used to obtain estimates of the DRLs without implementing the model itself, as demonstrated in Annex B. This allows all of the models and parameter values in this Guideline to be accessed in a simple way. Because conservative assumptions were made in calculating the default parameter values, the DRLs calculated using this approach will be conservative.
1.9 In CSA publications, should is used to express a recommendation or that which is advised but not required; may is used to express an option or that which is permissible within the limits of the Guideline; and can is used to express possibility or capability.