This Standard applies to both fixed and operable windows that are factoryand intended for vertical installation in buildings.
This Standard applies to both fixed and operable windows installed in prime doors and to door transoms and door sidelites.
This Standard applies to combination and composite windows as limited by Clause 10.1.4. Mullions are tested for structural adequacy, and unless a combination or composite window has been tested as an assembly, air and water tightness at the component interface are not evaluated.
The following were not considered in the preparation of this Standard:
(b) nonoperable portions of curtain walls;
(c) fixed glazing cast into precast concrete panels;
(f) skylights; and
(g) sloped glazing.
User Selection Guide to CSA Standard A440-00, Windows
Classifications and Test Requirements
Classification levels and test requirements provided by CSA Standard A440 and this Guide allow purchasers and specifiers to select windows suitable to their specific climatic conditions, height of installation, type of building, etc. The authority having jurisdiction assigns the minimum levels to be met. All other classifications and test requirements exceeding those specified by the authority having jurisdiction are considered optional.
Design data are included in Appendix C of the National Building Code of Canada (NBCC), which lists 640 selected locations in Canada. A specifier should reference the NBCC to ensure that historic climatic data support the selection and to provide the user, regardless of location, with the same minimum level of performance. NBCC data are reprinted in part as Table UGof this Guide.
The NBCC specifies two distinct building categories.
The first category, small buildings, is covered in Part 9 of the NBCC. Small buildings are defined as buildings of three storeys or less in building height that have a building area not exceeding 600 m2, and that are used for residential occupancies, business and personal service occupancies, mercantile occupancies, and medium- and low-hazard industrial occupancies. The user is encouraged to refer to Section 9.7 of the NBCC or the applicable Building Code for requirements that apply to windows in these buildings.
All other buildings are covered in Parts 3#8 of the NBCC and are defined as all buildings used for assembly occupancies, care or detention occupancies, and high-hazard industrial occupancies, as well as all buildings exceeding 600 m2 in building area or exceeding three storeys in building height that are used for residential occupancies, business and personal service occupancies, mercantile occupancies, and medium- and low-hazard industrial occupancies. In this Guide, buildings falling in this category are referred to as other buildings.
Building Height and Shape
All wind speeds are reported at a height of 10 m. Buildings of heights greater than 10 m will be subject to greater wind speeds. The shape of a building creates pressure coefficients that may increase or decrease pressures on the building.
Loads on Windows
Wind speeds are normally reported at flat open locations. Wind velocity in any area varies with terrain conditions, from centres of large cities to country, and from rough hilly terrain to open flat grassland and coastal areas.
Table UG-1 in this Guide is a simplified, quick guide for isolating the appropriate performance range for water leakage, wind load resistance, and condensation resistance. The levels suggested are minimum levels for basic buildings. As windows are considered cladding, the user is encouraged to refer to Part 4 of the NBCC, which covers design of building cladding.
Part 4 of the NBCC also requires that wind test pressures be increased by coefficients that reflect the influence of building height, building shape, and gusting.
This Guide also assists specifiers and manufacturers by offering commentary and background related to CSA Standard A440. It requires the user to make several choices from among optional requirements in order to select an appropriate product and level of performance that reflects the needs of the building.
Performance levels recommended in the charts do not guarantee against product failure. Calculations are based on minimum requirements and include a designed potential of recurrence of failure.
A short-form checklist of the decisions a specifier must make in order to use this Guide correctly follows in Appendix UG-A.
A440.2-04, Energy Performance of Windows and Other Fenestration Systems
This Standard applies to
(a) all windows covered by CAN/CSA-A440, including
(i) vertically sliding windows;
(ii) horizontally sliding windows;
(iii) tilt-and-turn windows;
(iv) casement windows, both fixed and operable;
(v) projecting (awning/hopper) windows; and
(vi) fixed windows, including fixed-window sidelites and transom windows;
(b) sliding glass doors covered by CAN/CGSB-82.1;
(c) skylights with flat glazings;
(d) curtain walls; and
(e) doorlites, including a doorlite frame to attach glazing to a door slab.
Unless otherwise specified, the term window is used to apply to all products listed in Clause 1.1.
This Standard specifies both measurement and calculation methods for establishing the following window properties for both residential and commercial applications:
(a) overall coefficient of heat transfer (U-value);
(b) solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC); and
(c) visible transmission (VT).
These window properties are established for specific indoor and outdoor conditions and will vary slightly under actual conditions. The values obtained by the methods specified are considered to provide an acceptable basis for comparing performance in use.
This Standard specifies a method for determining an energy performance rating for windows under heating conditions in residential applications that come under the Model National Energy Code of Canada for Houses. The Energy Rating (ER) includes factors for
(a) solar heat gain;
(b) heat loss by conduction, radiation, and convection; and
(c) heat loss by air leakage.
The ER allows for a comparison of different window products on the basis of their effect on the annual energy supplied by the house heating system. The ER calculation assumes vertical installation in a typical residence and is based on average conditions for incident solar radiation on windows facing the four cardinal compass directions (north, east, south, and west) and for representative climate zones in Canada.
CSA A440.3 is a user guide to this Standard. It provides data and instructions for determining an ER for specific locations, orientations, and window sizes (ERS) and an ER for residential cooling (ERC).
This Standard does not apply to
(a) fixed glazing cast into precast concrete panels;
(b) greenhouse windows;
(c) non-flat glazing;
(d) hinged doors; and
(e) glass blocks.
Although these products have not been considered in the development of this Standard, simulation procedures given in the Standard could be used to evaluate the U-value and the SHGC of these products.
This Standard does not address the retention of thermal and optical properties and airtightness by windows over time and under conditions of use.
In CSA Standards, shall is used to express a requirement, i.e., a provision that the user is obliged to satisfy in order to comply with the standard; should is used to express a recommendation or that which is advised but not required; and may is used to express an option or that which is permissible within the limits of the standard; and can is used to express possibility or capability.
Notes accompanying clauses do not include requirements or alternative requirements; the purpose of a note accompanying a clause is to separate from the text explanatory or informative material.
Notes to tables and figures are considered part of the table or figure and may be written as requirements. Legends to equations and figures are considered requirements. Annexes are designated normative (mandatory) or informative (nonmandatory) to define their application.
This Standard sets forth methods for both new installation and replacement installation of factory- assembled windows and exterior doors that are intended for vertical installation in small buildings primarily used for residential occupancy.
This Standard provides minimum requirements that will help to ensure the installation of windows in an effective manner, such that the performance of the window, as established by testing to the requirements of CSA Standards A440 and A440.2, is not compromised.
This Standard applies to the installation process from pre-installation procedures to post-installation procedures. It does not apply to the fabrication or assembly of units, whether such fabrication takes place in a factory or at the installation site.
The application of this Standard requires a working knowledge of applicable federal, provincial, and local building codes and regulations, specifically concerning, but not limited to, required means of egress and requirements for safety glazing.
This Standard does not apply to the
(a) selection of windows or doors for a given application;
(b) selection of other products for use in the installation;
(c) installation of windows or doors in seasonal dwellings;
(d) installation of storm windows or storm doors;
(e) maintenance of installed windows or doors; or
(f) rebuilding of windows or doors.
This Standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It does not set out requirements relating to the safety of the person installing the units.requirements of good building practice.
applicable, and an understanding of the fundamentals of residential construction that affect the installation of window and door units.
It is assumed that the users of this Standard are familiar with the terminology, procedures, and It further assumes familiarity with sealant and sealing, glass handling procedures, painting, where The Standard does not address the qualifications and skills that a window installer should possess.
It is the responsibility of the users of this Standard to review and establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.