Characterization of radioactive waste and irradiated fuel
This is the first edition of CSA N292.8, Characterization of radioactive waste and irradiated fuel.
This Standard works in concert with CSA N292.0, General principles for the management of radioactive waste and irradiated fuel, which specifies common requirements for the management of radioactive waste and irradiated fuel.
This Standard reflects the operating experience of the Canadian nuclear industry, best practices, and international experience and guidance.
The CSA N-series Standards provide an interlinked set of requirements for the management of nuclear facilities and activities. CSA N286 provides overall direction to management to develop and implement sound management practices and controls, while the other CSA Group nuclear Standards provide technical requirements and guidance that support the management system. This Standard works in harmony with CSA N286 and does not duplicate the generic requirements of CSA N286; however, it might provide more specific direction for those requirements.
Users of this Standard are reminded that the design, manufacture, construction, commissioning, operation, and decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Canada are subject to the provisions of the Nuclear Safety and Control Act and its supporting Regulations.
This Standard pertains to the characterization of radioactive waste and irradiated fuel. This Standard
a) specifies the overall requirements for establishing and implementing a waste characterization strategy, program, and plan;
b) specifies methodologies for the sampling and characterization of radioactive waste and irradiated fuel;
c) provides guidance for the timing of waste characterization planning and execution;
d) provides guidance on waste characterization during nuclear decommissioning and site remediation; and
e) provides guidance for reporting of waste characterization results.
Note: In this Standard, both the terms waste and radioactive waste are used to refer to radioactive waste and irradiated fuel.
1.2 Steps in the management of waste
This Standard applies to waste characterization during all steps in the management of radioactive waste and irradiated fuel, including
e) storage; and
Note: The objectives of waste characterization could be different for the various steps in the management of waste, and so the waste characterization data required could also vary to support these objectives.
1.3 Waste container
This Standard provides guidance on
a) the characterization of stored waste (e.g., contained within waste containers), including the interactions between the waste and waste containers; and
b) the characterization of waste not contained in a waste container, such as waste from site remediation and in-situ decommissioning.
This Standard excludes characterization of nonradioactive waste, naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) and technologically enhanced, naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM), and uranium mine and mill tailings.
1) Nonradioactive waste refers to that which is cleared or exempt from nuclear regulatory control. See CSA N292.5 for guidance on the requirements for exemption and clearance.
2) Users of this Standard within Canada are reminded that management of hazardous wastes is a matter of provincial jurisdiction unless the waste is transported across provincial or national borders, in which case federal jurisdiction would apply. For mixed waste, requirements under the federal AHJ also apply. This Standard is not intended to supersede requirements of the AHJ pertaining to the characterization of conventional hazardous properties of radioactive waste and, in certain cases, it might not satisfy these requirements. For those jurisdictions that follow the system of classification developed by the U.S. EPA, guidance on characterization of hazardous waste is available in references including U.S. EPA SW-846, U.S. EPA 530-R-12-001, and provincial requirements.
3) For guidance on the characterization of NORM and TENORM, see Lehto and Hou (2011) and L’Annunziata (2020).
1.5 CSA N292.0
This Standard is used in conjunction with CSA N292.0.
This Standard applies to waste organizations or facilities that generate, handle, process, transport, store, and dispose of radioactive waste and irradiated fuel, including nuclear power reactors, research institutes, medical facilities, manufacturing facilities, laboratories, and industrial facilities.
1) Waste organizations can refer to waste generators, waste brokers, waste receivers, waste processors, and waste management facility operators.
2) This Standard may be applied by other facilities using a graded approach.
3) See Clause 4.1.3 of CSA N286 regarding application of the graded approach.
In this Standard, shall is used to express a requirement, i.e., a provision that the user is obliged to satisfy in order to comply with the Standard; should is used to express a recommendation or that which is advised, but not required; and may is used to express an option or that which is permissible within the limits of the Standard.
Notes accompanying clauses do not include requirements or alternative requirements; the purpose of a note accompanying a clause is to separate from the text explanatory or informative material.
Notes to tables and figures are considered part of the table or figure and may be written as requirements.
Annexes are designated normative (mandatory) or informative (non-mandatory) to define their application.