Guidelines for softening and desalination of industrial wastewater for reuse
This document includes the following sub-processes of wastewater softening and desalination processes:
a) wastewater softening processes based on chemical precipitation, ion exchange and NF, which aim to remove hardness ions, such as Mg2+ and Ca2+;
b) desalination processes based on ion exchange, RO, ED, EDI and NF, which aim to remove the most of total dissolved solids (TDS).
This document is applicable to:
a) industrial saline wastewater, which has been pre-treated to remove most of the organic matters if necessary;
b) the selection or design of wastewater softening and desalination processes for reuse of wastewater from industries.