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— X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS or ESCA);
— secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS);
— Auger electron spectroscopy (AES).
The protocols presented are also applicable to other analytical techniques that are sensitive to surface composition, such as:
— attenuated total reflectance -Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR);
— total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF);
— ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS).
The influence of vacuum conditions applied and the issue of contamination before and after analysis and implantation, as well as issues related to contamination during analysis, are addressed. Biomaterials covered here are hard and soft specimens such as metals, ceramics, scaffolds and polymers.
This document does not cover such viable biological materials as cells, tissues and living organisms. Other related topics not covered in this document include: preparation of specimens for electron or light microscopy.