IEC 62746-10-1:2018 specifies a minimal data model and services for demand response (DR), pricing, and distributed energy resource (DER) communications. This document can be leveraged to manage customer energy resources, including load, generation, and storage, via signals provided by grid and/or market operators. These resources can be identified and managed as individual resources with specific capabilities, or as virtual resources with an aggregated set of capabilities. It specifies how to implement a two-way signaling system to facilitate information exchange between electricity service providers, aggregators, and end users. The DR signalling system is described in terms of servers (virtual top nodes or VTNs), which publish information to automated clients (virtual end nodes, or VENs), which in turn subscribe to the information. The services make no assumption of specific DR electric load control strategies that can be used within a DR resource or of any market-specific contractual or business agreements between electricity service providers and their customers.