Oil and Gas Pipeline Systems
This is the first edition of CSA Standard Z662, Oil and Gas Pipeline Systems, a new pipeline standard that incorporates and supersedes the requirements contained in the following CSA Standards:
(a) CAN/CSA-Z183-M90, Oil Pipeline Systems, and previous editions published in 1967, 1973, 1977, and 1983, each entitled Oil Pipeline Transportation Systems, and in 1986, entitled Oil Pipeline Systems;
(b) CAN/CSA-Z184-M92, Gas Pipeline Systems, and previous editions published in 1968 and 1973, entitled Gas Transportation and Distribution Piping Systems, and in 1975, 1979, 1983, and 1986, entitled Gas Pipeline Systems;
(c) CAN/CSA-Z187-M87 (R1992), Offshore Pipelines, and the preliminary edition published in 1984, entitled Offshore Pipeline Systems. This Standard is part of the Pipeline Systems and Materials segment of CSA’s Transportation program.
This edition differs from the previous series of CSA Standards mainly as follows:
(a) The ordering of clauses has been revised to be more sequential, and Clauses 4 to 10 contain general requirements applicable to all pipeline systems, except as modified for the specific types of pipeline systems covered by Clauses 11 to 14 inclusive.
(b) Zone locations from Z183 have been revised to be class locations with revised boundaries, however, without any change in the location factor.
(c) Cover and clearance requirements have been put into tabular form.
(d) Requirements for the design of pump stations over 375 kW have been added.
(e) Requirements for control and limiting of pipeline fluid pressure have been consolidated and the terminology has been simplified.
(f) The requirements for the use of materials in accordance with CSA standards have been modified.
(g) The classification of welds by type has been eliminated.
(h) The allowable use of ASME welding procedures has been expanded.
(i) Requirements for partial penetration butt welds have been added.
(j) Radiograph film requirements are now consistent with ISO classifications.
(k) Requirements for pipeline signage have been expanded.
(l) Requirements for evaluation and repair of piping containing imperfections have been revised.
(m) Requirements for gas distribution systems have been consolidated into one clause.
(n) Requirements for oilfield steam distribution pipeline systems have been added.
(o) An appendix covering slurry pipeline systems has been added.
(p) Appendices covering reinforcement of branch connections, hydrostatic yield testing, and the joining of polyethylene pipe using the heat-fusion technique have been deleted.
This Standard contains basic reference data and formulae pertaining to design, supplemented by specific requirements where necessary, to obtain a uniform interpretation of the design requirements. It lists unsafe pipeline practices that are prohibited and sets out warnings where caution must be exercised. In addition, this Standard contains a listing of applicable reference standards organizations (Appendix A) that may be of interest to users of this Standard.
The requirements of this Standard are considered adequate under conditions normally encountered in the oil and gas industry. Requirements for abnormal or unusual conditions are not specifically provided for, nor are all details of engineering and construction prescribed. It is intended that all work performed within the scope of this Standard meet the safety standards expressed or implied herein.
It is expected that changes may have to be made from time to time based on new experience or technology, or both. When necessary, amendments or supplements will be made by the Committee and published in accordance with CSA practices.
This Standard was prepared by the CSA Technical Committee on Oil and Gas Industry Pipeline Systems under the jurisdiction of the Standards Steering Committee on Oil and Gas Industry Systems and Materials and was formally approved by these Committees.
This Standard covers the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of oil and gas industry pipeline systems, which convey
(a) liquid hydrocarbons, including crude oil, multiphase fluids, condensate, liquid petroleum products, natural gas liquids, and liquefied petroleum gas;
(b) oilfield water;
(c) oilfield steam; or
*Designers are cautioned that the requirements in this Standard may not be appropriate for gases other than natural gas, manufactured gas, or synthetic natural gas.
The scope of this Standard, as shown in Figures 1.1 and 1.2 includes
(a) for oil industry fluids, piping in offshore pipelines, onshore pipelines, tank farms, pump stations, pressure-reducing stations, and metering stations;
(b) oil pipeline pump stations, tank farms, and pipeline terminals;
(c) for gas industry fluids, piping in offshore pipelines, onshore pipelines, compressor stations, metering stations, and pressure-regulating stations;
(d) gas Compressor stations, and
(e) gas storage lines and pipe-type or bottle- type gas storage vessels
This Standard does not apply to
(a) design and fabrication of pressure vessels that are covered by appropriate pressure vessel codes;
(b) piping with‘ metal temperatures below —70°C;
(c) piping other than oilfield steam distribution piping, with metal temperatures above 230°C;
Note: Although not specifically covered by this Standard, designs for higher temperatures may be used, provided that the effects of such higher temperatures are accounted for.
(d) gas piping beyond the outlet of the customer’s meter set assembly (which is covered by CAN/CGA-B149.1);
(e) piping in natural gasoline extraction plants, gas processing plants (except main gas stream piping in dehydration and all other processing plants installed as part of gas pipeline systems), gas manufacturing plants, industrial plants, and mines;
(f) oil refineries, terminals other than pipeline terminals, and marketing bulk plants;
(g) in-plant piping for drinking, make—up and boiler feed water;
(h) casing, tubing, or pipe in oil or gas wells, wellheads, separators, production tanks, and other production facilities;
(i) vent piping for waste gases of any kind operating at or near atmospheric pressure;
(j) heat exchangers;
(k) prefabricated units that employ plate and longitudinal welds rather than pipe;
(l) liquefied natural gas systems;
(m) liquid fuel distribution systems; and
(n) loading/unloading facilities for tankers or barges.
This Standard is intended to establish essential requirements and minimum standards for the design, installation, and operation of oil and gas industry pipeline systems. This Standard is not a design handbook and the exercise of competent engineering judgement is a necessary requirement to be employed concurrently with its use.
The requirements of this Standard are applicable to the operation, maintenance, and upgrading of existing installations; however, it is not intended that such requirements be applied retroactively to existing installations insofar as design, construction, and established operating pressures are concerned.
Where any requirements of this Standard are at variance with the requirements of other standards or codes incorporated by reference into this Standard, the requirements of this Standard shall govern.
It is not the intent of this Standard to prevent the development of new equipment or practices, or to prescribe how such innovations should be handled.