Deep geological disposal of radioactive waste and irradiated fuel
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This is the first edition of CSA N292.7, Deep geological disposal of radioactive waste and irradiated fuel. This Standard is part of the CSA N292 series of Standards on radioactive waste management.
This Standard works in concert with CSA N292.0, General principles for the management of radioactive waste and irradiated fuel, which specifies common requirements for the management of radioactive waste and irradiated fuel.
The CSA N-series Standards provide an interlinked set of requirements for the management of nuclear facilities and activities. CSA N286 provides overall direction to management to develop and implement sound management practices and controls, while the other CSA Group nuclear Standards provide technical requirements and guidance that support the management system. This Standard works in harmony with CSA N286 and does not duplicate the generic requirements of CSA N286; however, it might provide more specific direction for those requirements.
This Standard draws on the experience both in Canada and internationally in developing deep geological disposal facilities and reflects current best practices.
Users of this Standard are reminded that the design, manufacture, construction, commissioning, operation, and decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Canada are subject to the provisions of the Nuclear Safety and Control Act and its supporting Regulations.
1.1 Lifecycle activities
This Standard specifies the requirements for the following activities that occur during the lifecycle of a deep geological disposal facility for radioactive waste and irradiated fuel:
a) Indigenous and public engagement (see Clause 5);
b) site evaluation (see Clause 6);
c) design (see Clause 7);
d) monitoring and surveillance (see Clause 8);
e) safety assessment (see Clause 9);
f) site preparation (see Clause 10);
g) construction (see Clause 11);
h) commissioning (see Clause 12);
i) operation (see Clause 13);
j) closure (see Clause 14); and
k) institutional controls (see Clause 15).
1) Within this Standard, a deep geological disposal facility is also referred to as a disposal facility.
2) Within this Standard, both the terms waste and radioactive waste are used to refer to radioactive waste and irradiated fuel.
3) Surface facilities or structures that interface with the underground portion of a disposal facility and fulfil an underground function are included in the scope of this Standard (e.g., a shaft headframe).
1.2 Informative annexes
This Standard includes informative annexes to clarify
a) the stages associated with licensing of a deep geological disposal facility in Canada, and the lifecycle activities that are typically performed during each stage (see Annex A); and
b) the complementary content about the impact assessment (IA) process (see Annex B).
1) The term stages could also be referred to as phases.
2) Each licensing stage represents the dominant activity occurring at a point in time. For example, during the operation stage, the dominant activity is operation, but this stage could also include construction, commissioning, and closure activities.
This Standard excludes
a) requirements for the siting of a deep geological disposal facility, apart from siting-related aspects during the lifecycle activities of Indigenous and public engagement, site evaluation, design, and safety assessment;
b) disposal facility types other than deep geological disposal facilities, such as near surface disposal facilities and deep boreholes; and
c) surface facilities and other ancillary facilities associated with deep geological disposal, e.g., packaging plants, storage facilities, and water treatment plants, including their decommissioning.
1) Surface facilities and other ancillary facilities that require decommissioning are subject to the requirements of CSA N294.
2) Although surface facilities and other ancillary facilities are outside the scope of this Standard, activities associated with them could have an impact at the interface between the surface environment and the underground.
1.4 CSA N292.0
This Standard is used in conjunction with CSA N292.0.
This Standard applies to waste organizations or facilities associated with deep geological disposal of radioactive waste or irradiated fuel.
Note: Waste organizations can refer to waste generators, waste brokers, waste receivers, waste processors, and waste management facility operators.
1.6 Mandatory language
In this Standard, shall is used to express a requirement, i.e., a provision that the user is obliged to satisfy in order to comply with the Standard; should is used to express a recommendation or that which is advised but not required; and may is used to express an option or that which is permissible within the limits of the Standard.
Notes accompanying clauses do not include requirements or alternative requirements; the purpose of a note accompanying a clause is to separate from the text explanatory or informative material.
Notes to tables and figures are considered part of the table or figure and may be written as requirements.
Annexes are designated normative (mandatory) or informative (non-mandatory) to define their application.