Codes & Standards - Purchase
CSA ISO 16995:15 (R2020)
This is the first edition of CAN/CSA-ISO 16995, Solid biofuels — Determination of the water soluble chloride, sodium and potassium content, which is an adoption without modification of the identically titled ISO (International Organization for Standardization) Standard 16995 (first edition, 2015-02-15).
This Standard is one of many Standards developed by ISO/TC 238 on Solid Biofuels that are being adopted by CSA Group.
The elements chlorine, sodium and potassium are present in solid biofuels. They can contribute significantly to utilization problems such as corrosion, fouling and slagging in furnaces. Also, they affect the gaseous emissions from the thermal processes.
The chlorine content in solid biofuels is mainly present as water soluble inorganic salts such as sodium and potassium chlorides or other ion-exchangeable forms. Determination of the water soluble chloride content is thus an alternative and simple method to achieve information of the level of chlorine in solid biofuels. However, the content of water soluble chloride is not to be mistaken for the total content of chlorine in the fuels.
In solid biofuels, sodium and potassium can be present as both minerals and salts. The salts of these elements are extractable with water and are readily volatile during thermal conversion. By determination of the water soluble content of sodium and potassium, an estimate of the aggressive content of the elements in relation to potential slagging and fouling problems can be achieved. For some biofuels, such as straw, experience has shown that the water soluble content of sodium and potassium corresponds to the total content of the elements. The content of water soluble sodium and potassium is not to be mistaken for the total content of the elements.
This Standard describes a method for the determination of the water soluble chloride, sodium, and potassium content in solid biofuels by extraction with water in a closed container and their subsequent quantification by different analytical techniques.
This Standard has been developed in compliance with Standards Council of Canada requirements for National Standards of Canada. It has been published as a National Standard of Canada by CSA Group.
This International Standard describes a method for the determination of the water soluble chloride, sodium and potassium content in solid biofuels by extraction with water in a closed container and their subsequent quantification by different analytical techniques.