This is the tenth edition of the combined CSA Standards A23.1, Concrete materials and methods of concrete construction, and A23.2, Methods of test and standard practices for concrete.
These Standards are part of the CSA A23 series on concrete and reinforced concrete and supersede the previous editions published in 2000, 1994, 1990, 1977, 1973, 1967, 1960, 1942, and 1929. CSA A23.2 was previously titled Methods of Test for Concrete.
A23.1-04 Concrete materials and methods of concrete construction 1
This Standard provides the requirements for materials and methods of construction for cast-in-place concrete and concrete precast in the field.
(1) Requirements for the design of concrete structures are provided in CSA A23.3 and CAN/CSA-S6. Design of some specialty concrete products is described in separate CSA Standards.
(2) Methods of test for concrete are provided in CSA A23.2.
(3) Design provisions governing the fire resistance of reinforced concrete structures are set out in the National Building Code of Canada.
Precast concrete Requirements for the plant production of precast concrete are set out in CAN/CSA-A23.4.
Precasting of concrete in the field
At the option of the owner, precasting of concrete in the field or in a temporary plant is governed by this Standard or by CAN/CSA-A23.4, except as limited by Clauses 1.3.2, 1.3.3, and 1.3.4 of this Standard.
Guidelines for such a choice are provided in CAN/CSA-A23.4.
Precast products that may be produced in accordance with this Standard include conventionally reinforced elements of structures such as tilt-up walls, stair flights, landings, balcony slabs, lintels, and sills. Products requiring prestressing or post-tensioning are produced in accordance with CAN/CSA-A23.4.
For references to tilt-up construction, see PCA PA163 and ACI 551R.
If tolerances equivalent to the requirements of CAN/CSA-A23.4 are desired, then CAN/CSA-A23.4 is specified for all precasting operations.
The requirements of CAN/CSA-A23.4 are applicable to pretensioned concrete and precast concrete used in segmental construction.
In addition to the requirements of this Standard, the requirements of CAN/CSA-A23.4 are applicable to precast concrete.
1.4 Parking garages
For parking garages, the additional requirements of CAN/CSA-S413 are applicable.
1.5 Residential concrete
For residential concrete, the requirements of CAN/CSA-A438 apply.
1.6 Approval for equivalents
This Standard does not specifically cover the use of proprietary materials or methods of construction. They may be permitted by the owner under a separate specification, provided that the quality of the resulting construction meets the minimum requirements of this Standard.
In CSA Standards, shall is used to express a requirement, i.e., a provision that the user is obliged to satisfy in order to comply with the standard; should is used to express a recommendation or that which is advised but not required; and may is used to express an option or that which is permissible within the limits of the standard.
Notes accompanying clauses do not include requirements or alternative requirements; the purpose of a note accompanying a clause is to separate from the text explanatory or informative material.
Notes to tables and figures are considered part of the table or figure and may be written as requirements. Annexes are designated normative (mandatory) or informative (non-mandatory) to define their application.
A23.2-04 Methods of test and standard practices for concrete 1
This Standard covers the principal methods of test for hardened and freshly mixed concrete and for concrete materials, as specified in CSA A23.1 and CAN/CSA-A23.4.
1.2 Safety and health practices
This Standard does not purport to address the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this Standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.3 Metric conversion
This Standard is presented in metric units in accordance with CAN/CSA-Z234.1.
The ASTM Standards that are referenced herein are often based on the imperial system, with soft metric equivalents. Where ASTM Standards are referenced, the appropriate metric units in the ASTM Standards should be used wherever possible. When the ASTM Standards refer to other ASTM Standards for which there are equivalent CSA Standards, the latter Standards should be used to ensure a continuity in such things as sieve sizes, metric units, and other particular differences between the Standards.