CSA Z741:12 (R2022)
Geological storage of carbon dioxide
In support of the Canadian and American governments' commitment to reduce GHG emissions, CSA Z741 establishes a standardized approach to Geological Carbon Storage (GCS) projects consistent with industry best practices and regulatory requirements.
This standard establishes what to do requirements and guidelines to help industry manage risk. CSA Z741 will help Canada and the U.S. remain internationally competitive as the technology evolves and the market for carbon capture and storage (CCS) grows globally. This is Canada's first CCS standard for the geological storage of carbon emissions deep underground. It will help ensure that these storage projects are safe for future generations.
This standard provides essential guidelines for regulators, industry and others around the world involved with scientific and commercial CCS projects.
It establishes requirements and recommendations for:
• The geological storage of carbon dioxide to help promote environmentally safe and long term containment of carbon dioxide in a way that minimizes risks to the environment and human health.
• The development of management documents, community engagement, risk assessment and risk communication.
The project life cycle covers all aspects, periods, and stages of the storage project, beginning with injection and proceeding through subsequent operations until cessation of injection. The standard does not specify post-closure period.
This is the first edition of CSA Z741, Geological storage of carbon dioxide.
It should be noted that this Standard, by itself, does not have the force of law unless it is officially adopted by a regulatory authority. Since regulatory authorities can adopt the Standard with certain exceptions or additional requirements, it is recommended that the regulatory authority of the relevant jurisdiction be consulted in order to establish the extent to which this Standard has been adopted. Where this Standard conflicts with regulatory requirements, the regulatory requirements will take precedence.
This Standard was prepared by the Technical Committee on Geological Storage of Carbon Dioxide, which is a joint Canada — USA Technical Committee, under the jurisdiction of the Strategic Steering Committee on Business Management and Sustainability, and has been formally approved by the Technical Committee.
(a) establishes requirements and recommendations for the geological storage of carbon dioxide. The purpose of these requirements is to promote environmentally safe and long-term containment of carbon dioxide in a way that minimizes risks to the environment and human health.
(b) is primarily applicable to saline aquifers and depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs and does not preclude its application to storage associated with hydrocarbon recovery.
(c) includes, but is not limited to, the safe design, construction, operation, maintenance, and closure of storage sites.
(d) provides recommendations for the development of management documents, community engagement, risk assessment, and risk communication.
(1) This Standard recognizes that site selection and management are unique for each project and that intrinsic engineering risk(s) and uncertainties will be dealt with on a site-specific basis.
(2) With reference to not precluding storage associated with hydrocarbon recovery, it is explicit that this Standard does not establish requirements or recommendations associated with enhanced hydrocarbon recovery using CO2. While not specifically intended to cover storage associated with enhanced hydrocarbon recovery operations, aspects of this Standard could be used for projects considering the long term storage of CO2 that occurs as an incident of routine enhanced recovery operations.
This Standard applies to the storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) streams in geological media as defined in Clause 1.1.
Note: Depending on the storage unit, the stream could include impurities for which health, environmental, and safety risks require proper evaluation. This Standard does not allow waste and other matter to be added for the purpose of disposing of the added waste or other matter. However, a CO2 stream can contain incidental associated substances from the source, capture, or injection process and/or trace substances added to assist in CO2 migration detection.
The project life cycle covers all aspects, periods, and stages of the storage project, beginning with those necessary to initiate the project (including site screening, selection, characterization, assessment, engineering, permitting, and construction), that lead to the start of injection and proceeding through subsequent operations until cessation of injection; and culminating in the post-injection period, which can include a closure period and a post-closure period. This Standard does not specify post-closure period requirements. Figure 1 illustrates the confines, limits, and boundaries of this Standard.
Note: This Standard specifies that the post-closure period occurs only if a transfer of responsibility to a designated authority or other responsible entity takes place. If a transfer does not occur, the project remains in the closure period and formal site closure does not occur.
This Standard does not apply to
(a) the post-closure period;
(b) CO2 injection and storage in unmineable coal beds, basalt formations, shales, and salt caverns;
(c) underground storage in materials involving the use of any form of containers; and
(d) disposal of acid gas.
In this Standard, shall is used to express a requirement, i.e., a provision that the user shall satisfy in order to comply with the standard; should is used to express a recommendation or that which is advised but not required; may is used to express an option or that which is permissible within the limits of the standard; and can is used to express possibility or capability.
Notes accompanying clauses do not include requirements or alternative requirements; the purpose of a note accompanying a clause is to separate from the text explanatory or informative material.
Notes to tables and figures are considered part of the table or figure and may be written as requirements.
Annexes are designated normative (mandatory) or informative (non-mandatory) to define their application.
The values given in SI units are the units of record for the purposes of this Standard. The values given in parentheses are for information and comparison only.