Window, door, and skylight installation
This is the third edition of CAN/CSA-A440.4, Window, door, and skylight installation. It supersedes the previous editions published in 2007 and in 1998 under the title Window and door installation.
The Standard has been extensively rewritten to include up-to-date installation materials and techniques. The members of the Subcommittee have attempted to strike a balance between performance and prescriptive requirements for the window installation techniques described in this Standard. In general, an objective performance approach has been taken with detailed prescriptive requirements given only for installation methods that, in the experience of the Subcommittee members, require special attention to avoid problems with fenestration products after installation. The intent is to allow flexibility to adapt to the wide variety of existing installation practices and different wall and roof construction techniques and preferences, and to give guidance for new construction techniques and installation practices that, inevitably, will emerge over time.
Major changes in this edition of CAN/CSA-A440.4 are summarized as follows:
a) Application: The first edition of this Standard indicated that it applied to the installation of windows or doors in small buildings used primarily for residential occupancy. The second edition of this Standard expanded the scope of application to include buildings other than low-rise buildings primarily used for residential occupancy, in order to recognize the practice of installing windows that comply with the CSA A440 series of Standards in non-residential buildings and in high-rise residential buildings. This new edition takes a step back, no longer addressing high-rise residential buildings, which will be the subject of a separate future standard. However, many of the techniques described in this Standard might be applicable to mid-rise wood frame construction.
b) Definitions: A number of new definitions have been added to this Standard to reflect new materials and installation techniques. Some existing definitions have been revised and updated, and some definitions have been removed because they were no longer needed.
c) Reference publications: The CGSB sealant Standards have been withdrawn and replaced with ASTM sealant Standards, and the harmonized North American fenestration standard (AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I.S.2/A440) is now referenced.
d) Bay and bow windows: Installation of factory-assembled bay and bow windows, including window units, head, and seat, are included for the first time in this edition.
e) Insulating sheathing: Since the second edition of this Standard, the effect of heat loss (thermal bridging) through wood frame components (such as studs, top plates, sill plates, rim joists, etc.), has become more important in order to meet energy performance targets. This edition includes adjustments to shimming and anchoring techniques to accommodate the installation of insulating sheathing which often requires a window or door to be set partly or wholly outside the wood stud frame.
f) Shimming and anchoring diagrams: The diagrams included in the first and second editions of this Standard have been extensively revised to reflect improvements in fenestration product construction techniques (such as better corner welding techniques for PVC windows), and the introduction of finishes which reduce solar heat gain so that requirements for adjusting the locations of shims and anchors to allow for thermal expansion and contraction of the fenestration product frame can be relaxed. Nail flange window requirements have been updated. Figures have been added for additional combination window and combination window and door assemblies.
g) Sub-sill flashing: Installation requirements have been revised to reflect growing knowledge and improved techniques for sub-sill flashing.
A simplified method to select when a sub-sill flashing has been introduced, consistent with requirements in Division B, Part 9 of the National Building Code of Canada (NBC) for installation of a capillary break in walls required to have two planes of protection.
h) Air and water leakage testing of installed fenestration products: The second edition of this Standard introduced methods of testing installed fenestration products to confirm that the rated performance of the fenestration product has not been compromised during installation, and that the installation itself, including the frame-to-wall interface, will provide an acceptable level of performance over the intended service life of the fenestration product. In this edition, performance requirements have been updated to be consistent with the North American fenestration standard.
This Standard was developed to address issues that can adversely affect the performance of fenestration products when installed in building walls and roofs. Performance issues related to installation can affect not only the buildings in which the fenestration products are installed, but also the performance of the fenestration products with respect to the requirements contained in the following Standards:
• AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I.S.2/A440-11, NAFS — North American fenestration standard/Specification for fenestration products;
• CSA A440S1-09, Canadian supplement to AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I.S.2/A440, NAFS — North American Fenestration Standard/Specification for Fenestration Products;
• CAN/CSA-A440.2-14, Fenestration energy performance; and
• CAN/CSA A440.3-14, User Guide to CSA A440.2-14, Fenestration energy performance.
This Standard has been developed in compliance with Standards Council of Canada requirements for National Standards of Canada. It has been published as a National Standard of Canada by CSA Group.
This Standard sets forth methods for both new installation and replacement installation of factory assembled windows, exterior doors, and skylights that are intended for installation in low-rise buildings and buildings used primarily for, but not limited to, residential occupancy where the windows, doors, and skylights (including window wall) are R, LC, or CW class within the application of AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I.S.2/A440.
Note: The effectiveness, safety, and durability of installed fenestration products depend on the choice and quality of materials and design, adequate assembly, the support system, and proper installation. Improper installation of fenestration products might reduce their effectiveness, including excessive condensation; unacceptably high levels of air, water, and sound leakage; and deterioration of the wall and roof systems into which they are installed.
This Standard provides minimum requirements for the installation of fenestration products including windows, doors, and skylights. This Standard addresses issues that could compromise the performance of the fenestration product as established by testing to the requirements of AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I.S.2/A440. Where installation methods are not specifically addressed in this Standard or in the installation instructions of the manufacturer of a fenestration product, a design professional should be consulted for a solution consistent with the intent of the minimum requirements and principles in this Standard.
The application of this Standard requires a working knowledge of applicable federal, provincial, and local (municipal) building codes and regulations specifically concerning, but not limited to, required means of egress and requirements for safety glazing.
This Standard does not apply to the
a) selection of fenestration products for a given application;
b) selection of other products for use in the installation;
c) installation of storm windows or storm doors;
d) maintenance of installed fenestration products;
e) rebuilding of fenestration products; or
f) fabrication of fenestration products, whether such fabrication takes place in a factory or at the installation site.
Note: For product selection information, see CSA A440S1.
This Standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It does not set out requirements relating to the safety of the person installing the units. It is the responsibility of the installer to obtain necessary health and safety training and to follow proper procedures for safe handling and application of installation materials and fenestration products.
This Standard assumes that its users are familiar with the terminology, procedures, and requirements of good building practice. Some requirements and guidance are included in this Standard, but the installer should also refer to information available from installation material and fenestration product manufacturers.
This Standard does not address the qualifications and skills that an installer should possess. It assumes familiarity with the fundamentals of low-rise building construction in Canada as described in Division B, Part 9 of the NBC and of installation techniques for fenestration products normally available in Canada. Although guidance is provided in the manner of installation of fenestration products, it is not a training manual.
In this Standard, shall is used to express a requirement, i.e., a provision that the user is obliged to satisfy in order to comply with the standard; should is used to express a recommendation or that which is advised but not required; and may is used to express an option or that which is permissible within the limits of the Standard.
Notes accompanying clauses do not include requirements or alternative requirements; the purpose of a note accompanying a clause is to separate from the text explanatory or informative material.
Notes to tables and figures are considered part of the table or figure and may be written as requirements.
Annexes are designated normative (mandatory) or informative (non-mandatory) to define their application.
The values given in SI units are the units of record for the purposes of this Standard. The values given in parentheses are for information and comparison only.