This Smart PDF consists of CAN/CSA-Z662-03, Oil and Gas Pipeline Systems, Z662.1-03, Commentary on CSA Standard CAN/CSA-Z662-03, Oil and Gas Pipeline Systems.
Smart PDF features include links between the Standard and Commentary, internal links to clauses, tables and appendices, built-in calculators, bookmarks, searchable text, and print capability.Z662-03
This PDF includes Updates No. 1, 2, and 3Scope
This Standard covers the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of oil and gas industry pipeline systems that convey
a) liquid hydrocarbons, including crude oil, multiphase fluids, condensate, liquid petroleum products, natural gas liquids, and liquefied petroleum gas;
b) oilfield water;
c) oilfield steam;
d) carbon dioxide used in oilfield enhanced recovery schemes; or
Note: Designers are cautioned that the requirements in this Standard may not be appropriate for gases other than natural gas, manufactured gas, or synthetic natural gas.
The scope of this Standard, as shown in Figures 1.1 and 1.2, includes
a) for oil industry fluids, piping and equipment in offshore pipelines, onshore pipelines, tank farms, pump stations, pressure-regulating stations, and measuring stations;
b) oil pump stations, pipeline tank farms, and pipeline terminals;
c) for carbon dioxide pipeline systems, piping and equipment in onshore pipelines, pressure-regulating stations, and measuring stations;
d) for gas industry fluids, piping and equipment in offshore pipelines, onshore pipelines, compressor stations, measuring stations, and pressure-regulating stations;
e) gas compressor stations; and
f) gas storage lines and pipe-type and bottle-type gas storage vessels.
This Standard does not apply to
a) piping with metal temperatures below -70 °C;
b) piping (except oilfield steam distribution piping) with metal temperatures above 230 °C;
c) gas piping beyond the outlet of the customer's meter set assembly (covered by CSA B149.1);
d) piping in natural gas liquids extraction plants, gas processing plants (except main gas stream piping in dehydration and all other processing plants installed as part of gas pipeline systems), gas manufacturing plants, industrial plants, and mines;
e) oil refineries, terminals other than pipeline terminals, and marketing bulk plants;
f) abandoned piping;
g) in-plant piping for drinking, make-up, or boiler feed water;
h) casing, tubing, or pipe in oil or gas wells, wellheads, separators, production tanks, and other production facilities;
i) vent piping for waste gases of any kind operating at or near atmospheric pressure;
j) heat exchangers;
k) liquefied natural gas systems (covered by CSA Z276);
l) liquid fuel distribution systems;
m) loading/unloading facilities for tankers or barges;
n) refuelling facilities; and
o) hydrocarbon storage in underground formations and associated equipment (covered by CSA Z341).
This Standard is intended to establish essential requirements and minimum standards for the design, construction, and operation of oil and gas industry pipeline systems. This Standard is not a design handbook, and the exercise of competent engineering judgment is a necessary requirement to be employed concurrently with its use.
The requirements of this Standard are applicable to the operation, maintenance, and upgrading of existing installations; however, it is not intended that such requirements be applied retroactively to existing installations insofar as design, construction, and established operating pressures are concerned.
Unless otherwise stated, to determine conformance with the specified requirements, it is intended that observed or calculated values be rounded to the nearest unit in the last right-hand place of figures used in expressing the limiting value, in accordance with the rounding method of ASTM E 29.
Where any requirements of this Standard are at variance with the requirements of other publications incorporated by reference into this Standard, it is intended that the requirements of this Standard govern.
It is not the intent of this Standard to prevent the development of new equipment or practices, or to prescribe how such innovations should be handled.
In this Standard, is used to express a requirement, i.e., a provision that the user is obliged to satisfy in order to comply with the standard; is used to express a recommendation or that which is advised but not required; , , or is used to express that which is permitted; and or is used to express a possibility. Notes accompanying clauses do not include requirements or alternative requirements; the purpose of a note accompanying a clause is to separate from the text explanatory or informative material. Notes to tables and figures are considered part of the tables and figures and may be written as requirements. Legends to equations and figures are considered requirements
Z662.1-03 - Commentary
- The scope statement indicates which aspects and parts of pipeline systems and which service fluids are covered by the Standard.
- Carbon dioxide was added as a new service fluid in 1996. The definition of gas was changed in 1983 to accommodate the coverage of gaseous service fluids other than fuel gas and sour gas; however, until 1996, none had been added.
- The carbon dioxide pipelines that are covered are those onshore pipelines that are for use in enhanced oil recovery operations, involving the transportation of high-purity carbon dioxide from a suitable source to the injection site at an oil well. These pipelines were added to the Standard because it was considered that there had been sufficient experience with such an application to warrant their inclusion. Pure carbon dioxide is non-toxic and non-flammable; however, it has some specific characteristics that necessitated the addition of requirements specific to carbon dioxide pipeline systems. It should be noted that the definition of a carbon dioxide pipeline permits the service fluid in such a pipeline to be other than pure carbon dioxide, so additional special requirements may be appropriate.
- It should be noted that carbon dioxide might additionally be present in conventional pipelines as a component of a multiphase fluid or as a component of a fluid in a gas gathering system. For such fluids, the conventional requirements previously in place continue to be appropriate.
- The parts of pipeline systems that are included in the scope are listed here, and the pictorial representations in Figures 1.1, 1.2, 11.1 to 11.5, and 12.1 are intended to augment the information stated in Clauses 1.2 and 1.3. The figures are schematic and are intended to convey broad functions rather than specific details.
- In 1999, a reference to equipment was added in Items a), c), and d) to recognize that Clause 5.1.1 contains a reference to equipment.
- The parts of pipeline systems that are not included in the scope are listed here, along with a list of some related items that are beyond the defined limits of pipeline systems. Items that are within the defined limits of pipeline systems but are currently outside the scope of the Standard may be included in the scope in some future edition of the Standard, should the CSA Technical Committee on Oil and Gas Pipeline Systems and the Strategic Steering Committee on Oil and Gas Industry Systems and Materials deem that such additions to the scope are appropriate.
- In 1999, the previous reference to the design and fabrication of pressure vessels that are covered by appropriate pressure vessels codes was deleted from the list of items in order to recognize that some items within the scope of the Standard are required to be designed in accordance with the requirements of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code or CSA B51. (See Clause 4.3.4, for example.)
- In 1999, a reference to abandoned piping (Item f) was added to the list of items in order to clarify that such piping is no longer part of the pipeline system and is therefore outside the scope of the Standard.
- In 1996, a reference to natural gas refuelling stations was added to the list of items. In 1999, this reference was modified to the more general term .refuelling facilities. (Item n) in order to include underground fuel storage tanks as an item that is outside the scope of the Standard.
- In 1996, a reference to hydrocarbon storage in underground formations (Item o) was added to the list in order to acknowledge the publication of CSA Z341-93, which subsequently has been superseded by the 2002 edition referenced in Clause 2 of the Standard.
The requirements in the Standard are considered adequate under conditions normally encountered, and requirements for abnormal or unusual conditions are not necessarily specifically addressed. Although in some instances in the Standard the requirements are necessarily quite prescriptive, it is important to keep in mind that the Standard is not a design handbook and that the exercise of competent engineering judgment is necessary in using the Standard. The exercise of competent engineering judgment is intended to promote the use of more stringent requirements than are specified in the Standard, not to permit deviations from the prescribed requirements.
The design and construction requirements have been primarily developed with new pipelines and facilities in mind. Some practices that are practicable and reasonable during design and construction may not be practical for an existing pipeline. A case in point is the requirement to use piping that has proven notch toughness properties; the requirements in the Standard have been modified and generally made more stringent through the years, primarily to provide improved safety, but also to reflect technological improvements that have been made in the manufacturing processes used for pipe and components. Design requirements can be readily changed; however, the mechanical properties of inservice piping cannot. It is recognized that where upgrading involves the replacement of existing piping with new piping, what was not practical for the old piping is practicable for the new piping. Note that the terms , , and < impractical> are not defined in the Standard because the ordinary dictionary meanings are intended, whereby means capable of being effected or accomplished; means adapted to actual conditions; and is the negative form of . The term is used in the Standard rather than the dictionary term to indicate the negative form of . The similarity of the terms may lead to confusion for the reader unless the specific meanings are understood.
This is a new clause in the Standard that is intended to define the basis for the numerical rounding practices used throughout the Standard.
A requirement in the Standard cannot be superseded by a less restrictive requirement in a referenced publication.
Practices are not included in the Standard until they are generally accepted as being good practices. Accordingly, even new practices that are superior to established practices are not included in the Standard until the Technical Committee deems such new practices to be acceptable. It is not the intent of the Standard to prevent the development of new practices, and generally such practices would need to be approved for use by the regulatory authority having jurisdiction.
This is a new clause intended to clarify the intent and meaning of the words , , , , etc., in the context of their use in this Standard. This clause also clarifies that notes associated with written clauses are not considered mandatory; however, notes associated with tables and figures are a mandatory part of the Standard