Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) - Production, Storage, and Handling
This is the seventh edition of CSA Standard Z276, Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) — Production, Storage, and Handling. It supersedes the previous editions published in 1994, 1989, 1981 (with a major supplement in 1986), 1978, 1973, and 1972.
The CSA Technical Committee on Liquefied Natural Gas has had a continued liaison with the US National Fire Protection Association’s Committee on Liquefied Natural Gas in reviewing and making recommendations for changes to the current edition. In the first two editions of this Standard, the Committee chose to formally adopt the then-current editions of NFPA Standard 59A. For the third edition of the Standard, the 1975 edition of NFPA Standard No. 59A was prepared in CSA format and published as a new CSA Standard in order to facilitate its use by Canadian regulatory authorities. The fourth edition was the first edition written entirely in metric (SI) units.
The fifth edition included a new and important clause on operating, maintenance, and personnel training, and a major revision of Clause 10 on the transfer of LNG and flammable refrigerants and the transportation of LNG by highway tank.
The sixth edition contained such major changes as improved requirements for primary and secondary electrical seals; improved wording of seismic design requirements to apply to concrete LNG containers; rewording of the requirements for a vapour dispersion model to recognize continuing development in this field; and provisions for calculating heat flux from a fire over an irregular area.
For the current edition, the CSA and NFPA Technical Committees attempted to harmonize their standards. However, the two standards were modified to meet their respective countries’ regulatory requirements.
This edition contains the following major changes:
(a) improved wording of seismic design requirements in Clause 6.1.3 to apply to stationary LNG containers and of information on seismic design of LNG plants in Appendix A; and
(b) minor editorial changes to several clauses to bring the Standard closer to NFPA Standard 59A while maintaining Canadian regulatory requirements.
This Standard contains basic reference data relating to design, supplemented by specific requirements, where necessary, to obtain a uniform interpretation of the design requirements.
This Standard was prepared by the Technical Committee on Liquefied Natural Gas, under the jurisdiction of the Strategic Steering Committee on Oil and Gas Industry Systems and Materials, and has been formally approved by the Technical Committee.
This Standard applies to the
(d) operation; and
of facilities at any location for the liquefaction of natural gas and the storage, vaporization, transfer, handling, and truck transport of liquefied natural gas (LNG), as well as the training of personnel involved.
This Standard applies to all containers for the storage of LNG, including those with insulation systems applying a vacuum.
This Standard does not apply to frozen ground containers.
This Standard includes non-mandatory guidelines for small LNG facilities (see Clause 2.1 and Appendix C).
This Standard does not apply to the following:
(a) the transportation of refrigerants by any means;
(b) the transportation of LNG by railcar, marine vessel, or pipeline; and
(c) facilities designed to allow the use of LNG as a fuel for highway vehicles, railroad locomotives, or marine vessels.
All references to pressure throughout this document are gauge pressures unless otherwise specified.
All pipe sizes are shown as nominal pipe sizes (NPS).
The values given in S1 (metric) units are the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.