A440-00 - Windows
This volume contains the fourth edition of CSA Standard A440, Windows, and the third edition of CSA Special Publication A440.1, User Selection Guide to CSA Standard A440-00, Windows. This edition of CSA Standard A440 supersedes the previous editions, published in 1998, 1990, and 1984. This edition of CSA Special Publication A440.1 supersedes the previous editions, published in 1998 and 1990.
CSA Standard A440 provides a single set of performance-oriented technical requirements for factory-built windows used in residential and commercial construction, regardless of the material used in the frame and sash members.
Major changes from the 1998 edition of CSA Standard A440 include the following:
(a) Clause 4.1.1 now requires that windows be classified in accordance with insect screen strength and resistance to forced entry criteria, in addition to the 1998 requirements;
(b) reference standards have been updated;
(c) Clauses 5.4, 6.4, and 6.5 have been revised and simplified;
(d) Clause 11.2.3 pertaining to crack length has been revised and made more clear;
(e) Clause 11.12 has been revised entirely and now references Temperature Index instead of temperature factor; and
(f) a number of other editorial and nomenclature corrections were made.
Classification levels and test requirements provided in this Standard allow a purchaser or specifier to select windows suitable to their specific climatic conditions, height of installation, type of building, etc. The authority having jurisdiction assigns the minimum levels to be met. All other classifications and test requirements exceeding those specified by the authority having jurisdiction are considered optional.
CSA Special Publication A440.1 complements the A440 Standard. The Guide gives a detailed explanation of how to select the correct minimum level appropriate to the installation. The Committee continues to be active, most notably with regard to harmonization activities for both the A440 and A440.2 Standards and the development of a new standard for residential entry door systems.
CSA Standard A440 was prepared by the Technical Committee on Performance Standards for Windows under the jurisdiction of the Standards Steering Committee on Building Materials and Products, and has been formally approved by the Technical Committee. It will be submitted to the Standards Council of Canada for approval as a National Standard of Canada.
This Standard applies to both fixed and operable windows that are factory-assembled and intended for vertical installation in buildings.
This Standard applies to both fixed and operable windows installed in prime doors and to door transoms and door sidelites.
This Standard applies to combination and composite windows as limited by Clause 10.1.4. Mullions are tested for structural adequacy, and unless a combination or composite window has been tested as an assembly, air and water tightness at the component interface are not evaluated.
The following were not considered in the preparation of this Standard:
(b) nonoperable portions of curtain walls;
(c) fixed glazing cast into precast concrete panels;
(f) skylights; and
(g) sloped glazing.
Special Publication A440.1-00 - User Selection Guide to CSA Standard A440-00, Windows
This is the third edition of CSA Special Publication A440.1, User Selection Guide to CSA Standard A440-00, Windows. It supersedes the previous editions, published in 1998 and 1990. This User Guide complements CSA Standard A440. It is designed to assist specifiers, manufacturers, and general users. Clause numbers in this Special Publication correspond to the clauses in CSA Standard A440. Commentary is not provided for all clauses of the Standard.
CSA Standard A440 not only provides the materials and design criteria for the manufacture of window products but also provides end users with the performance information required to assess the suitability of a product for a particular application.
In recent years, CSA Standard A440 has evolved to the point where it has become necessary to supplement the document with a user guide to assist in interpretation of the Standard. The specific intent of this Special Publication is to
(a) direct users to those areas in which a selection must be made from among optional requirements of the Standard;
(b) provide users with the information required to select products suitable for a specific application and geographic location within Canada; and
(c) provide users with the background and intent of the tests and requirements outlined in the Standard.
As CSA Standard A440 is now the only window Standard referenced in the National Building Code of Canada, it is important that the manufacturing and specification sectors acquire a working knowledge of its use. As the National Building Code typically specifies only minimum performance requirements, it is strongly recommended that appropriate performance ratings are specifically selected to meet climatic conditions and occupancy classifications.
Classifications and Test Requirements
Classification levels and test requirements provided by CSA Standard A440 and this Guide allow purchasers and specifiers to select windows suitable to their specific climatic conditions, height of installation, type of building, etc. The authority having jurisdiction assigns the minimum levels to be met. All other classifications and test requirements exceeding those specified by the authority having jurisdiction are considered optional.
Design data are included in Appendix C of the National Building Code of Canada (NBCC), which lists 640 selected locations in Canada. A specifier should reference the NBCC to ensure that historic climatic data support the selection and to provide the user, regardless of location, with the same minimum level of performance. NBCC data are reprinted in part as Table UG-1 of this Guide.
The NBCC specifies two distinct building categories.
The first category, small buildings, is covered in Part 9 of the NBCC. Small buildings are defined as buildings of three storeys or less in building height that have a building area not exceeding 600 m2, and that are used for residential occupancies, business and personal service occupancies, mercantile occupancies, and medium- and low-hazard industrial occupancies. The user is encouraged to refer to Section 9.7 of the NBCC or the applicable Building Code for requirements that apply to windows in these buildings.
All other buildings are covered in Parts 3–8 of the NBCC and are defined as all buildings used for assembly occupancies, care or detention occupancies, and high-hazard industrial occupancies, as well as all buildings exceeding 600 m2 in building area or exceeding three storeys in building height that are used for residential occupancies, business and personal service occupancies, mercantile occupancies, and medium- and low-hazard industrial occupancies. In this Guide, buildings falling in this category are referred to as other buildings.
Building Height and Shape
All wind speeds are reported at a height of 10 m. Buildings of heights greater than 10 m will be subject to greater wind speeds. The shape of a building creates pressure coefficients that may increase or decrease pressures on the building.
Loads on Windows
Wind speeds are normally reported at flat open locations. Wind velocity in any area varies with terrain conditions, from centres of large cities to country, and from rough hilly terrain to open flat grassland and coastal areas.
Table UG-1 in this Guide is a simplified, quick guide for isolating the appropriate performance range for water leakage, wind load resistance, and condensation resistance. The levels suggested are minimum levels for basic buildings. As windows are considered cladding, the user is encouraged to refer to Part 4 of the NBCC, which covers design of building cladding.
Part 4 of the NBCC also requires that wind test pressures be increased by coefficients that reflect the influence of building height, building shape, and gusting.
This Guide also assists specifiers and manufacturers by offering commentary and background related to CSA Standard A440. It requires the user to make several choices from among optional requirements in order to select an appropriate product and level of performance that reflects the needs of the building.
Performance levels recommended in the charts do not guarantee against product failure. Calculations are based on minimum requirements and include a designed potential of recurrence of failure.
A short-form checklist of the decisions a specifier must make in order to use this Guide correctly follows in Appendix UG-A.
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