Guide to wood chip fuel: Characteristics, supply, storage, and procurement
This is the first edition of CSA SPE 2254, Guide to wood chip fuel: Characteristics, supply, storage, and procurement.
CSA Group acknowledges that the development of this Guide was made possible, in part, by the financial support of the Energy Innovation Program by the Department of Natural Resources of Canada.
The scope of this Guide is wide ranging to ensure market confidence for a successfully established wood chip fuel supply chain. A safe and reliable high performing wood chip energy system requires knowledge of characteristics, supply, storage, and procurement of the fuel. Wood chips in the context of this Guide are restricted to wood chips according to CAN/CSA-ISO 17225 Part 4.
This Guide aims to bridge the gap between the suppliers and end users of wood chip fuel by
a) providing information on the supply and feedstock characteristics of wood chips;
b) providing technical guidance on bulk storage practices and safety considerations;
c) describing key fuel properties of wood chips in CAN/CSA-ISO 17725 Part 4; and
d) bringing common terminology and language to the marketplace.
The intended audiences for this guide include those involved in
a) producing and supplying wood chips, including aggregators, sawmills, loggers, urban tree services, woodland management services, value added wood processors such as furniture and cabinet makers, and flooring manufacturers;
b) project developers, including equipment manufacturers, engineering professionals, planning and procurement officers; and
c) facilities managers, maintenance staff, and those responsible for the operation of biomass systems.
This Guide applies to small-scale to medium-scale facilities used in commercial and institutional buildings and larger-scale facilities, such as light industrial sites and district heating (see Table 1). The scale used for grouping the applications is for illustration only; in practice, some overlaps between the applications and the scales are expected.
Residential applications (<100 kWth) and the industrial facilities that are larger than 5 MWth are not in the scope of this guide.
The guidelines and recommendations in this Guide are based on information gathered from various industries and research sources. They are representative of the best known practices currently used by fuel producers and end users. However, measures other than those recommended in this Guide might need to be adopted by individual organizations depending on their specific needs, conditions, and circumstances.
The values given in SI units are the units of record for the purposes of this Guide. The values given in parentheses are for information and comparison only.
Annex A provides examples of simple calculations and conversions for basic parameters used throughout the Guide.